# 48582 Power Systems Analysis and Design

**Warning:** The information on this page is indicative. The subject outline for a
particular session, location and mode of offering is the authoritative source
of all information about the subject for that offering. Required texts, recommended texts and references in particular are likely to change. Students will be provided with a subject outline once they enrol in the subject.

Subject handbook information prior to 2016 is available in the Archives.

*UTS: Engineering: Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems*

*Credit points:*6 cp

Subject level:

Undergraduate

*Result type*: Grade and marks

*Requisite(s): 48572 Power Circuit Theory*

Recommended studies: power circuit theory knowledge is essential for this subject

### Description

The primary objective of this subject is the development of a working knowledge of power systems analysis and design. Emphasis is placed on the derivation of equivalent circuits, mathematical models of devices and the system, and on methods of analysis and measurement. Material covered includes electricity supply chain building blocks, system analysis, real/reactive power and load flow analysis, dynamic and transient stability.

### Subject objectives

Upon successful completion of this subject students should be able to:

1. | Explain the engineers’ role in delivering reliable and efficient electrical energy to various sectors of society |
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2. | Model and predict the operation of power system components, including their steady-state and transient behaviour |

3. | Analyse and design simple power system components |

4. | Apply theoretical concepts to practical situations, as dictated by industries’ needs |

5. | Contribute to the community as an engineer in the power systems field |

6. | Use computer packages to solve a variety of problems in the power systems field |

7. | Make simplification and valid engineering assumptions in the analysis or design of a system |

8. | Illustrate the process of conceptualisation and formulation of problems in terms of a mathematical model, and then being able to find a solution to the original problem |

This subject also contributes specifically to the development of the following faculty course intended learning outcomes and Engineering Australia (EA) Stage 1 competencies:

- A1. Identify, interpret and analyse stakeholder needs, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 1.2, 2.3, 2.4 (A.1)
- A3. Identify constraints, uncertainties and risks of the system (social, cultural, legislative, environmental, business etc.), which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 (A.3)
- A5. Apply systems thinking to understand complex system behaviour including interactions between components and with other systems (social, cultural, legislative, environmental, business etc.), which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competency: 1.5 (A.5)
- B1. Identify and apply relevant problem solving methodologies, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 (B.1)
- B2. Design components, systems and/or processes to meet required specifications, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 1.3, 1.6, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 (B.2)
- B3. Synthesise alternative/innovative solutions, concepts and procedures, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 1.1, 3.3 (B.3)
- B5. Implement and test solutions, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 2.2, 2.3 (B.5)
- C2. Develop models using appropriate tools such as computer software, laboratory equipment and other devices, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 2.2,2.3, 2.4 (C.2)
- C3. Evaluate model applicability, accuracy and limitations, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 2.1,2.2 (C.3)
- D1. Manage own time and processes effectively by prioritising competing demands to achieve personal goals, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 3.5, 3.6 (D.1)
- E2. Work as an effective member or leader of diverse teams within a multi-level, multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural setting, which is linked to EA Stage 1 Competencies: 2.4, 3.2, 3.6 (E.2)

### Teaching and learning strategies

Class time is used for lectures, tutorials, and laboratories. Lectures will introduce material in a modular fashion, starting from supply chain building blocks and working up to the system as a whole. Tutorials will concentrate on reinforcing fundamental concepts through drill problems, computer simulations and design exercises. Laboratories will reinforce fundamental concepts and provide opportunities for verification of power system behaviour from model predictions. In order to bridge the gap between theory and practice and to increase familiarity with the literature, students will be required to attempt a number of computing and experimental assignments based on theory and techniques treated in the lectures, but which require further individual investigation.

Lecture notes are aimed as a supplement to the textbooks. Students are advised not to depend only on the lecture notes but to work through the precribed textbooks using the notes as a guideline. The textbooks contain many examples and exercises. Although solving these exercises is not formally assessed, this work is part of the learning process. The students are expected to enhance their competency in the course by solving these exercises and to demonstrate their level of understanding through the laboratory work and solving exam problems.

**Lectures**

Students should attend all lectures. Lectures will be delivered in an interactive atmosphere between the students and the lecturer. Students will have the opportunity to raise any doubts and questions in relation to the lecture topic. Lecture attendance will be recorded.

**Tutorials**

Students should attend all tutorial sessions. Tutorial problems will focus on the application of the theory learnt in the lecture sessions. Solutions for the tutorial problems will be worked out in the tutorial sessions. Students are encouraged to attempt these problems independently during tutorial sessions. No online solutions will be provided.

**Labs**

Laboratories are structured sessions that allow you to put into practice the theory developed in lectures using specialised equipment. They generally involve pre-work. Experienced laboratory staff will assist in the running of the laboratories.

Twenty four hour access to computer laboratories that have MATLAB will be given to the tudents.

### Content

**Synchronous machine model **

Synchronous machines equivalent circuit -two axis model -balanced three phase fault -simplified representation for transient analysis.

**Review of symmetrical components and fault analysis **

Symmetrical faults

Analysis of three phase symmetrical faults -determination of short circuit capacity (SCC) -fault analysis using Z-bus matrix -numerical examples.

Symmetrical components

Basics of symmetrical components -sequence impedance of a star connected load -sequence impedance of a transmission line -sequence impedance of synchronous generator -sequence network of a loaded synchronous generator.

Unsymmetrical faults

Analysis of different types of three phase unsymmetrical faults-Z-bus matrix using symmetrical components -fault analysis using Z-bus matrix-numerical examples.

**Power system stability **

Swing equation -single machine on infinite bus (SMIB) model -steady state stability -stability based on equal area criterion -numerical solution of swing equation -multi-machine system -network representation -network reduction -power equation -multi-machine stability studies.

**Active and reactive power control **

Basics of active power and frequency control -automatic generation control (AGC) -AGC in an isolated power system -AGC in a two area system-tie-line frequency bias control -reactive power and voltage control -rate feedback in excitation system.

**Load Flow Analysis **

Nodal admittance matrix -Newton-Raphson (NR) method -application of NR method for load flow analysis -fast decoupled load flow.

**Transmission Line Performance **

Transmission line complex power flow-sending and receiving end power circles -power transfer capacity of transmission lines -thermal limit -stability limit -line reactive compensation -shunt reactors -shunt capacitor compensation -capacitive series reactor compensation.

**Mechanical design of transmission lines **

The catenary curve equation -line tension and sag -line tension -line sag(d) -length(L) of the transmission line conductor -design of transmission lines -effect of wind and ice loading - conductors supported at different levels -stringing chart -equivalent span.

**Transmission Line Insulators **

Voltage distribution over a string of suspension insulator -methods of equalising the voltage distribution -selection of m -grading of units -static shielding.

**Underground cables **

Cable insulation -protective coverings -electrostatic stress in single core cable -grading of cables -insulation resistance of cables -heating of cables -current rating of a cable -thermal considerations -calculation of current rating.

**Substation fundamentals and design **

Substation classifications -substation specifications -substation design requirements -substation layout -substation equipment -busbar systems and design-insulation co-ordination and surge arrestors -substation earthing or grounding -minimum clearance and creepage distances.

### Assessment

#### Assessment task 1: Power system labs - 3 experiments

Intent: | To test skill and understanding of complex laboratory apparatus, and to verify theoretical predictions of power system behaviour. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 This assessment task contributes to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes: A.1, A.5, B.1, B.5, C.2, C.3 and E.2 | ||||||||||||||||

Type: | Laboratory/practical | ||||||||||||||||

Groupwork: | Group, group assessed | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 15% | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 2: Power system software labs 3 experiments

Intent: | To test skill and understanding of power system software, and to verify theoretical predictions of power system behaviour. | ||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 This assessment task contributes to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes: A.1, A.3, A.5, B.1, B.5 and D.1 | ||||||||||||

Type: | Laboratory/practical | ||||||||||||

Groupwork: | Individual | ||||||||||||

Weight: | 15% | ||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 3: Assignment 1

Intent: | Test knowledge of the use of the concepts learnt in the theory for practical applications. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 This assessment task contributes to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes: A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Type: | Exercises | ||||||||||||||||

Groupwork: | Individual | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 10% | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 4: Assignment 2

Intent: | Test knowledge of the use of the concepts learnt in the theory for practical applications. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Type: | Exercises | ||||||||||||||||

Groupwork: | Individual | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 10% | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 5: Assignment 3 - Power system design

Intent: | To test the knowledge of design principles for a particular design task. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Type: | Case study | ||||||||||||||||

Groupwork: | Individual | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 15% | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 6: Final exam

Intent: | Test knowledge of electricity supply building blocks, system analysis, real and reactive power and load flow analysis, dynamic and transient stability. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Type: | Examination | ||||||||||||||||

Groupwork: | Individual | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 35% | ||||||||||||||||

Length: | 2 hours plus 10 minutes reading time | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

### Required texts

Grainger, J.J. and Stevenson, W.D., *Power System Analysis*, McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Hadi, S., *Power System Analysis, 3rd Ed.*, PSA Publishing.

### References

Arnold, C.P., Arrillaga, J. & Harker, B.J., *Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems*, John Wiley & Sons, 1983.

Davies, T., *Protection of Industrial Power Systems, 2nd Ed.*, 1998.

Electricity Council (Ed), *Power System Protection, Vols. 1, 2, 3*, Inspec / IEE, 1989.

Elgerd, O. I., *Electric Energy Systems Theory, 2nd Ed.*, McGraw-Hill, 1983.

Greenwood, A., *Electrical Transients in Power Systems, 2nd Ed.*, Wiley, 1991.

Heathcote, M., *J & P Transformer Book, 13th Ed.*, Newnes, 2007.

Kusic, G., *Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis, 2nd Ed.*, CRC, 2008.

Nagsarkar, T.K. and Sukhija, M.S., *Power System Analysis*, Oxford University Press.

Glover, J.D., *Power System Analysis and Design, 4th Ed.*, Thompson, USA.

Kundur, P., *Power System Stability and Control*, McGraw-Hill, Inc,.

Students are advised not to restrict themselves to the above mentioned textbooks but to refer books in the power system discipline to widen their knowledge in the subject.