# 48582 Power Systems Analysis and Design

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*UTS: Engineering: Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems*

*Credit points:*6 cp

Subject level:

Undergraduate

*Result type*: Grade and marks

*Requisite(s): 48572 Power Circuit Theory*

Recommended studies: power circuit theory knowledge is essential for this subject

### Description

The primary objective of this subject is the development of a working knowledge of power systems analysis and design. Emphasis is placed on the derivation of equivalent circuits, mathematical models of devices and the system, and on methods of analysis and measurement. Material covered includes electricity supply chain building blocks, system analysis, real/reactive power and load flow analysis, dynamic and transient stability.

### Subject objectives

Upon successful completion of this subject students should be able to:

1. | Explain the engineers’ role in delivering reliable and efficient electrical energy to various sectors of society |
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2. | Model and predict the operation of power system components, including their steady-state and transient behaviour |

3. | Analyse and design simple power system components |

4. | Apply theoretical concepts to practical situations, as dictated by industries’ needs |

5. | Contribute to the community as an engineer in the power systems field |

6. | Use computer packages to solve a variety of problems in the power systems field |

7. | Make simplification and valid engineering assumptions in the analysis or design of a system |

8. | Illustrate the process of conceptualisation and formulation of problems in terms of a mathematical model, and then being able to find a solution to the original problem |

This subject also contributes specifically to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes:

- Identify, interpret and analyse stakeholder needs [EA Stage 1 Competency: 1.2, 2.3, 2.4] (A.1)
- Identify constraints, uncertainties and risks of the system (social, cultural, legislative, environmental, business etc.) [EA Stage 1 Competency: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3] (A.3)
- Apply systems thinking to understand complex system behaviour including interactions between components and with other systems (social, cultural, legislative, environmental, business etc.) [EA Stage 1 Competency: 1.5 ] (A.5)
- Identify and apply relevant problem solving methodologies [EA Stage 1 Competency:1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3] (B.1)
- Design components, systems and/or processes to meet required specifications [EA Stage 1 Competency: 1.3, 1.6, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3] (B.2)
- Synthesise alternative/innovative solutions, concepts and procedures [EA Stage 1 Competency: 1.1, 3.3] (B.3)
- Implement and test solutions [EA Stage 1 Competency: 2.2, 2.3,] (B.5)
- Develop models using appropriate tools such as computer software, laboratory equipment and other devices [EA Stage 1 Competency: 2.2,2.3, 2.4] (C.2)
- Evaluate model applicability, accuracy and limitations [EA Stage 1 Competency: 2.1,2.2] (C.3)
- Manage own time and processes effectively by prioritising competing demands to achieve personal goals [EA Stage 1 Competency: 3.5, 3.6] (D.1)
- Work as an effective member or leader of diverse teams within a multi-level, multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural setting [EA Stage 1 Competency:2.4, 3.2, 3.6] (E.2)

### Teaching and learning strategies

Class time is used for lectures, tutorials, and laboratories. Lectures will introduce material in a modular fashion, starting from supply chain building blocks and working up to the system as a whole. Tutorials will concentrate on reinforcing fundamental concepts through drill problems, computer simulations and design exercises. Laboratories will reinforce fundamental concepts and provide opportunities for verification of power system behaviour from model predictions. In order to bridge the gap between theory and practice and to increase familiarity with the literature, students will be required to attempt a number of computing and experimental assignments based on theory and techniques treated in the lectures, but which require further individual investigation.

Apart from lectures, tutorials and laboratory sessions scheduled in the subject time table the subject will comprise of 3 home work assignments and 1 mid-semester exam. Students are expected to actively participate in the laboratory experiments and tutorial sessions. The students have to develop competency in using a power system analysis software to study load flow and dynamic simulation problems. This exercise will form a part of laboratory assignment.

Lecture notes are aimed as a supplement to the text book referred by the students. Students are advised not to depend only on the lecture notes but to work through the precribed text books using the notes as a guideline. The text books contain many examples and exercises. Although solving these exercises is not formally assessed, this work is part of the learning process. The students are expected to enhance their competencyin the course by solving these exercises and to demonstrate their level of understanding through the laboratory work and solving exam problems.

**Lectures **Students should attend all lectures. Lectures will be delivered in an interactive atmosphere between the students and the lecturer. Students will have the opportunity to raise any doubts and questions in relation to the lecture topic. Lecture attendance will be recorded.

**Tutorials**

Students should attend all tutorials sessions. Tutorial problems will focus on the application of the theory learnt in the lecture sessions. Solutions for the tutorial problems will be worked out in the tutorial sessions. Students are encouraged to attempt these problems independently during tutorial sessions. No online solutions will be provided.

**Labs**

Laboratories are structured sessions that allow you to put into practice the theory developed in lectures using specialised equipments. They generally involve pre-work. Experienced laboratory staff will assist in the running of the laboratories.

Twenty four hour access to computer laboratories that have MATLAB c will be given to the tudents.

### Content

**Synchronous machine model **

Synchronous machines equivalent circuit -two axis model -balanced three phase fault -simplifed representation for transient analysis.

**Review of symmetrical components and fault analysis **

Symmetrical faults

Analysisof three phase symmetricalfaults -determinationof short circuit capacity (SCC) -fault analysis using Z-bus matrix -numerical examples.

Symmetrical components

Basics of symmetrical components -sequence impedance of a star connected load -sequence impedance of a transmission line -sequence impedance of synchronous generator -sequence network of a loaded synchronous generator.

Unsymmetrical faults

Analysis of different types of three phase unsymmetrical faults-Z-bus matrix using symmetrical components -fault analysis using Z-bus matrix-numerical examples.

**Power system stability **

Swing equation -single machine on infinite bus (SMIB) model -steady state stability -stability based on equal area criterion -numerical solution of swing equation -multimachine system -network representation -network reduction -power equation -multimachine stability studies.

**Active and reactive power control **Basics of active power and frequency control -automatic generation control(AGC) -AGC in an isolated power system -AGC in a two area system-tie-line frequency bias control -reactive power and voltage control -rate feedback in excitation system.

**Load Flow Analysis **

Nodal admittance matrix -Newton-Raphson (NR) method -application of NR method for load flow analysis -fast decoupled load flow.

**Transmission Line Performance **

Transmission line complex power flow-sending and receiving end power circles -power transfer capacity of transmission lines -thermal limit -stability limit -line reactive compensation -shunt reactors -shunt capacitor compensation -capacitive series reactor compensation.

**Mechanical design of transmission lines **

The catenary curve equation -line tension and sag -line tension -line sag(d) -length(L) of the transmission line conductor -design of transmission lines -effect of wind and ice loading - conductors supported at different levels -stringing chart -equivalent span.

**Transmission Line Insulators **

Voltage distribution over a string of suspension insulator -methods of equalising the voltage distribution -selection of m -grading of units -static shielding.

**Underground cables **Cable insulation -protective coverings -electrostatic stress in single core cable -grading of cables -insulation resistance of cables -heating of cables -current rating of a cable -thermal considerations -calculation of current rating.

**Substation fundamentals and design **Substation classifications -substation specifications -substation design requirements -substation layout -substation equipments -busbar systems and design-insulation co-ordination and surge arrestors -substation earthing or grounding -minimum clearance and creepage distances.

### Assessment

#### Assessment task 1: Power system labs - 3 experiments

Intent: | To test skill and understanding of complex laboratory apparatus, and to verify theoretical predictions of power system behaviour. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 This assessment task contributes to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes: A.1, A.5, B.1, B.5, C.2, C.3 and E.2 | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 15 | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 2: Power system software labs 3 experiments

Intent: | To test skill and understanding of power system software, and to verify theoretical predictions of power system behaviour. | ||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 This assessment task contributes to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes: A.1, A.3, A.5, B.1, B.5 and D.1 | ||||||||||||

Weight: | 15 | ||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 3: Assignment 1

Intent: | Test knowledge of the use of the concepts learnt in the theory for practical applications. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 This assessment task contributes to the development of the following course intended learning outcomes: A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 15 | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 4: Assignment 2

Intent: | Test knowledge of the use of the concepts learnt in the theory for practical applications. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 15 | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 5: Assignment 3 - Power system design

Intent: | To test the knowledge of design principles for a particular design task. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 20 | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

#### Assessment task 6: Mid-semester exam

Intent: | Test knowledge of electricity supply building blocks, system analysis, real and reactive power and load flow analysis, dynamic and transient stability. | ||||||||||||||||
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Objective(s): | This assessment task addresses subject learning objectives: 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 A.1, A.3, B.1, B.2, B.3 and D.1 | ||||||||||||||||

Weight: | 20 | ||||||||||||||||

Criteria linkages: |
SLOs: subject learning objectives CILOs: course intended learning outcomes |

### Minimum requirements

The overall minimum mark required to pass the subject is 50%.

### Recommended texts

Grainger, J. J. and Stevenson, W. D., 'Power System Analysis', McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Hadi Saadat, Power system analysis, 3rd edition, PSA Publishing

### References

Arnold, C.P., Arrillaga, J. & Harker, B. J., 'Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems', John Wiley & Sons, 1983.

Davies, T., 'Protection of Industrial Power Systems', 2nd Ed., 1998.

Electricity Council (Ed), 'Power System Protection', Vols. 1, 2, 3, Inspec / IEE, 1989.

Elgerd, O. I., 'Electric Energy Systems Theory', 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1983.

Greenwood, A., 'Electrical Transients in Power Systems', 2nd Ed., Wiley, 1991.

Heathcote, M., 'J & P Transformer Book', 13th Ed., Newnes, 2007.

Kusic, G., 'Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis', 2nd Ed., CRC, 2008.

John J. Grainger andWilliam D. Stevenson, Jr., Power system analysis, McGraw-Hill, Inc,.

T. K. Nagsarkar and M.S.Sukhija, Power system analysis, Oxford University press.

J Duncan Glover, Power system analysis and design, Fouth edition, Thompson, USA.

Prabha Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, Inc,.

Students are advised not to restrict themselves to the above mentioned text books but to refer books in the power system discipline to widen their knowledge in the subject.

### Other resources

UTSOnline provides a subject web site with notes in PDF format and links to on-line resources etc.

It is important for the students to visit http://online.uts.edu.au regularly as important subject announcements, lecture notes, lab handouts and assignment sheets will be posted in UTS Online.