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91402 Anatomical Pathology

Warning: The information on this page is indicative. The subject outline for a particular semester, location and mode of offering is the authoritative source of all information about the subject for that offering. Required texts, recommended texts and references in particular are likely to change. Students will be provided with a subject outline once they enrol in the subject.

Subject handbook information prior to 2015 is available in the Archives.

UTS: Science: Medical and Molecular Biosciences
Credit points: 6 cp
Result type: Grade and marks

Requisite(s): 91400 Human Anatomy and Physiology AND 91500 Histology
These requisites may not apply to students in certain courses. See access conditions.
Anti-requisite(s): 91354 Anatomical Pathology

Description

This subject builds on 91500 Histology and provides a basic knowledge of disease processes, the body's responses to them, and the light microscopic appearance of diseased tissues; and general pathology. Students then move on to special pathology and examine the major organ systems, learning about organ specific diseases which affect these systems. Various histochemical methods already learned are used to demonstrate pathological tissue changes that occur during disease development. This is all integrated to present an understanding of disease, its histological appearance and the laboratory staining techniques used to investigate structural tissue changes that occur in disease states and aid histopathological diagnosis.

Subject objectives

Upon successful completion of this subject students should be able to:

1. revise the chemistry, techniques and reasons for tissue fixation, processing, embedding of tissue into blocks and the preparation of tissue sections
2. describe the staining of tissues and the chemical nature of normal and diseased tissues, binding of dyes and their molecular interaction with tissue sites
3. practice laboratory safety and multitasking needed for routine histological slide staining.
4. revise and improve the knowledge of basic tissue structure and from this learn to differentiate disease by the changes seen in affected tissues
5. add to the learned discipline specific terminology by recognising their Latin and classical Greek roots, which are particular to field of general pathology and histopathology
6. identify disease processes in tissue sections using the light microscope
7. explain changes in organ function from the alterations seen in diseased tissue architecture
8. refine and review the set-up of light microscope, understand and explain the value and use of different magnifications and use of filters, polarising lens, which assist in disease diagnosis
9. interpret both normal and diseased tissue electron photomicrographs.

This subject also contributes specifically to the development of following course intended learning outcomes:

  • An understanding of the nature, practice and application of the chosen science discipline. (1.0)
  • The ability to acquire, develop, employ and integrate a range of technical, practical and professional skills, in appropriate and ethical ways within a professional context, autonomously and collaboratively and across a range of disciplinary and professional areas, e.g. time management skills, personal organisation skills, teamwork skills, computing skills, laboratory skills, data handling, quantitative and graphical literacy skills. (3.0)

Contribution to the development of graduate attributes

This is a level 3 stage 6 elective subject for most degrees with the exception of Forensic Biology where it is a level 2 subject catering for high ATAR entry students. This subject builds on the fundamentals of human anatomy, physiology and histology in earlier stages to provide the basis of the pathogy major in the BSc and Biomedical Science and Medical Science degrees. This subject is a core requirement for the 3rd year Forensic Biology degree subjects to assist these students by teaching them the range of abnormalities with a disease basis so they can differentiate intentional/accidental damage.

This subject addresses the following Graduate Attributes:

1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application
An understanding of the diseased tissue structure and function is given by attending lecture & practical classes. The newly acquired facts are consolidated, revised and further developed with the practical skills of light microscopy during the practical classes. Practical class attendance will also teach and develop differential tissue staining to highlight various components to assist disease recognition. This should then be further strengthened by the consultation and reading of prescribed texts to gain an encompassing understanding of the discipline area.

2. An Enquiry-oriented approach
An understanding of scientific method and knowledge acquisition is achieved by regular practise of the diagnostic skills, which require problem solving, critical thinking in the analysis of unknown tissue samples. This is done in a structured and stepwise fashion, where each student is required to weekly document the process of diagnosis of their prescribed “Unknown” tissue section onto a standardized report form. This method teaching has been devised to determine if previous weeks learned material has been assimilated and honed those skills each time – this technique has been proven to give the student a focused procedure to follow that provides the information (observation and identification - cellular components, structure, and staining responses) from which they can distinguish and name the tissue they have examined. Thus students identify the structural changes that have occurred as a result of the disease process the tissue has undergone - the student gains the ability to discover new understandings of the process of diagnosis and tissue structure determination.

3. Professional skills and their appropriate application
Students gain the ability to acquire, develop, employ and integrate a range of technical, practical and professional skills, in appropriate and ethical ways within a professional context, autonomously and collaboratively and across a range of disciplinary and professional areas: e.g. Time management skills, personal organization skills, teamwork skills, computing skills, laboratory skills, data handling, quantitative and graphical literacy skills. This is achieved by the weekly requirement of students to prepare for and think about their practical class work, in the form of planning their class activity. They must provide a detailed flow chart of the necessary tasks, they will have to determined the time the procedure will take, such that an ordered workflow is established that fits into the class time. This work plan is also required to factor-in time for clean-up of the work area and equipment decontamination and its stowage. Finite resources require the students to develop the ability to work as a team - required for efficient use of technical equipment and reagents. The regular use of laboratory equipment, its basic maintenance and given instruction on its use give students enhance the basic laboratory skills learned in the subject 91500 Histology.

4. Ability and motivation for continued intellectual development
The capacity to engage in reflection and learning beyond the formal educational environment, is based on the ability to make effective judgments about one’s own work. Students are provided with worked examples of the slides they diagnose and can compare what they have seen to what is present in the teaching material, this allows them to return to the slides to find what they have missed. The capacity to learn in, and from, new disciplines that enhance the application of scientific knowledge and skills in professional context are encouraged. Building on disciplines learned in first year and the first semester of second year assists the student integrate specific disciplines into the understanding the human body as a whole, by the incorporation of histopathological or diseased tissue micro-anatomical architecture into the changes in the functioning of organs. The graded, weekly development and reinforcement of analytical and subject specific knowledge give the undergraduate the chance to compare and reflect on their assimilation of discipline’s facts and skills. This in turn provides them a chance to determine their strengths and weaknesses in their work and study habits and to make appropriate changes as needed or seek assistance from study counsellors.

5. Engagement with the needs of Society
An awareness of the role of science, epidemiology and disease burden within a global culture and willingness to contribute actively to the shaping of community views on complex issues where the methods and findings of science are relevant. Anatomical pathology’s specific diagnostic discipline can add to this aspect of student attributes when using these skills in medical and scientific research, practice or in writing policy. Reflection on lecture material in regard to the subject’s role in scientific endeavor and how it has shaped scientific understanding of structure and function of the animal and human health contributes to these qualities.

6. Communication skills
An understanding of the different forms of communication - writing, reading, speaking, listening - including visual and graphical interpretation - in science and this discipline offer the ability to apply these appropriately and effectively to different audiences. The process is realized by weekly reporting of tissue determinations, which gives formal training in a form of scientific writing. The use of discipline specific technical language is required to give a clear and concise report providing unambiguous information on the acquired data and how its use has lead to these conclusions.

7. Initiative and innovative ability
An ability to think and work creatively, including the capacity for self-starting, and the capacity to apply scientific skills to unfamiliar applications is encouraged. The structured and graded format of this discipline’s curriculum leads the students to uncover and build on information. This gives them the opportunity to pace their learning and influences the motivation of individuals to seek and learn more. However, this assumes a degree of interest and consistent timely effort, because this is the basis of an ever-growing foundation to which a scientist adds information their whole life. The intent is to constantly ease students out of their ‘comfort zones’ and challenge them to seek answers by using their learned skills and as such hone and refine these scientific skills within methods of scientific enquiry.

Teaching and learning strategies

This subject delivery is over 5 hours every week of semester, this comprises of two, one hour lectures and a 3 hour of practical class.
Students are also expected to include in their program an equivalent time in private study each week and to utilize the tutorial week. This private study should to be spent, reading the recommended texts and expanding the lecture material which is only basic terminology and an introduction to each topic. Each student needs to increase their skill in the use of the light microscope and refine their knowledge of histology. This facilitates the acquisition of further knowledge of disease and the processes within tissue, which create structural change in them. The intention is to hone proficiency in light microscopy and provide revision of the lecture material and prescribed texts, as well as furnish the opportunity for the building of knowledge of pathology by weekly practice of tissue reactions to disease from viewing microscopic slides.
 

Content

This subject is an extension of histotechnology knowledge acquired in the subject 91500 Histology and how these methods can assist in disease diagnosis, which intends to teach the student - by light microscopic examination - the changes in microscopic anatomy (histopathology) of different reactive and diseased cells, tissues and organs that compose them. This knowledge assists in the understanding the dysfunction of organs by recognizing the role each cell plays in an illness. This is achieved by recounting how the tissue is sampled, preserved and prepared for microscopic examination. New techniques in histotechnology are studied and practiced - where the staining of diseased tissue sections on glass slide is done to differentially show the different tissue elements.

Assessment

Assessment task 1: Lab Plan and Slide Preparation - Specifically weeks 1, 4, 6 & 13

Objective(s):

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

1.0 and 3.0

Weight: 20
Criteria:

Planning, preparation and performance of histological staining as a measure of professional skill and disciplinary knowledge.

Assessment task 2: Mid Semester Exam

Objective(s):

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

1.0

Weight: 10
Criteria:

The underlying premise for the assessment is accuracy of the student’s disciplinary knowledge, as well as interpretation and application of this information. Development of professional skills is assessed through the identification and diagnosis of an unknown histopathological process.

Assessment task 3: Final Practical Examination

Objective(s):

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

1.0 and 3.0

Weight: 20
Criteria:

The underlying premise for the assessment is accuracy of the student’s disciplinary knowledge, as well as interpretation and application of this information. Development of professional skills is assessed through the identification and diagnosis of an unknown histopathological process.

Assessment task 4: Final Written Examination

Objective(s):

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

1.0

Weight: 50
Criteria:

The underlying premise for the assessment is accuracy of the student’s disciplinary knowledge, as well as interpretation and application of this information. Development of professional skills is assessed through the identification and diagnosis of an unknown histopathological process.

Minimum requirements

Student must obtain at least 40% of the marks available for the final examination in order to pass this subject. If 40% is not reached, an X grade fail may be awarded for the subject, irrespective of an overall mark greater than 50.

Lecture & Practical Class Attendance and Safety

  • Students are expected to attend ALL lectures, as only a lecture outline will be available on UTSOnline. There will be no images available because of copyright issues. No lecture notes will be provided in any form.
  • Develop and practise laboratory safety and histological slide staining
  • Develop professional skills and their appropriate application

BY Attending all laboratory practical classes, punctually and perform all tasks mindful of safe laboratory practice. This will be determined from:

  • ALL & correct laboratory safety attire
  • Cleanliness of workspace
  • Safe work practice
  • Attending at least 70%, that is 8 of 11 whole practical sessions.

Text, Library and Online Resources
It is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to read prescribed texts and use all available resources, both online and in the library to reinforce and build-up the materials you are introduced to in lectures and practical classes. As well as access atlases from these sources to learn to identify the visual microscopic features of the organs you have studied in this course.

Required texts

Rubin’s Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine, 6th Edition 2012, with online tools ‘thePoint’, Editors: Rubin R, Stryer DS & Rubin E., Publ. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Cellular Pathology An introduction to techniques and Application, 2nd Edition, 2006, Author: Cook DJ , Publ Scion

RE-use from the previous semester
Histology: A Text and Atlas With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology ,6th Edition, 2011 Authors: Ross MH & Pawlina W, Publ. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions & Nursing, Illustrated bonus CD, Edition 6, Pub Date 2008 , Publ Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Other resources

Other useful, replacement atlases which can be purchased second hand or borrow from the university library, many of the older editions may not have sufficient factual information but are good for morphology (tissue structure) or basic principles and are a good place to start rather than be without a text or atlas

Pathology

· Histology for pathologists 2nd ed Sternberg SS

Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1997 611.018 STER (ED.2)

· Appleton & Lange review of general pathology 4th ed Catalano, Edison

McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003 616.07 CATA (ED.4)

· Color atlas of pathology: pathologic principles, associated diseases, sequela [translated by John Grossmanand Carole Curten] Riede, Ursus-Nikolaus & Werner Martin Thieme Stuttgart ; New York, 2004 616.07 RIED

· Basic Pathology, 6th ed, 1997 Kumar V, Cotran RS & Robbins SL,

WB Saunders Co 616.06/2

· Pathology - A Colour Atlas 2000

Damjanov I & Linder J eds, Mosby 616.07 DAMA

· Pathology, 3rd ed 1999

Rubin E & Farber JL, Lippincott Publ. 616.06/2

· Pathology, 1998 Damjanov I, Conran PB & Goldblatt,

Lippincott-Raven 616.07076 DAMJ

· Pathology, 1995, 2000 Stevens A & Lowe JS,

Mosby, 616. 07 STEV & 616. 07 STEV (ed 2)

· Concise Pathology 2nd ed 1995 Chandrasoma P & Taylor CR

Appleton & Lange Publ, 616.07 CHAN (ED 2)

· Scar Wars, Britain

Video Education Australia, for Mediamax USA AGH 617.1 SCAR

· Case files. Pathology Toy E C

McGraw Hill, New York, 2006. 616.07 TOYE

· Mind maps in pathology Dervan PA & Harrison M

Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2002 616.07 DERV

· Mind maps in medicine McDermott, P & Clarke DN

Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1998 610 MCDE

Histopathology

· Pathology . A Colour Atlas, 2000

Damjanov | & Linder L, Mosby. 616.07 DAMA

· Basic Histopathology. A Colour Atlas and Text, 2nd ed. 1991

Wheater' PR, Burkitt HG, Stevens A & Lowe JS, Churchill Livingston Press. 611.018/60

· Wheater's Basic Histopathology. A Colour Atlas and Text, 4th ed. 2002

Stevens A & Young B, CHL Medical 611.018 WHEA (ED.4)

· Sandwritter's Colour Atlas and Textbook of Histopathology. 6th & 7th eds. 1984

Sandwritter W, Year Book Medical Publ, 611.018/58

· Curran’s Atlas of Histopathology. 3rd ed.2000

Curran RC, and Crocker J, London, Oxford University Press, 616.07583 Curr (ed 4)

Histochemistry References

· Microscopy and Histology for Molecular Biologists. A Users Guide, 2002

Kiernan JA & Mason I eds, Portland Press Ltd, 570.282 KIER

· Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques 6th ed., 2008

Bancroft JD & Gamble M eds. Churchill Livingstone 616.07583 BANC (ED.6)

· The ABC of safe practices for the biological sciences laboratory : an easy to use reference manual for laboratory personnel 1991

Ellis RC, Perry DI & Gormley BM Educational Resource Centre, Adelaide Medical Centre for Women and Children, 574.0289/3

· Laboratory Histopathology. A Complete Reference 1994

Woods AE & Ellis RC eds., Churchill Livingstone

· Manual of Histological Techniques and Their Diagnostic Application 1994

Bancroft JD, Cook HC and Sterling RW, Churchill Livingstone 616.07583 BANR

· Laboratory Methods in Histotechnology 1994 Eds: Prophet E, Mills B, Arrington JB & Sobin LH, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 611.018 PROP

· Histopathology Laboratory Notebook. 1991

Roy C Ellis, Queen Elizabeth Hospital , Woodville, South Australia

· Histological & histochemical methods. Theory & Practice 2nd ed 1990

Kiernan JA, Pergamon Press, 611.018028/1 (ED 2)

· Cellular Pathology Technique. 4th ed. 1985,

Culling CFA, Allison RT & Barr WT, Butterworth 616.07582

· Carleton’ Histological Techniques 5th ed, 1980

Drury RAB & Wallington EA, Oxford Medical Publ, 616.07583/21

· Conn's Biological Stains 9th ed, 1977

Lillie RD, Williams & Wilkins, 578.64/2

· Histopathologic Technic and Practical Histochemistry. 4th ed. 1976

Lillie RD & Fuhlmer HM, McGraw Hill, 616.07583

· Cytological Technique. The principles underlying routine methods. 5th ed. 1966

Baker JR, Methuen, 578.6

· Staining Animal Tissues: Practical and Theoretical 1963

Gurr E , London, Hill Publishers 578.64/3

· Encyclopaedia of Microscope Stains 1960

Gurr E , London, Hill Publishers 578.644

Anatomy References

· Anatomical Atlas. 4th ed, 1972

Jepson M, John Murray Publ. 612.124

· Autopsy pathology : a manual and atlas

Finkbeiner WE, Ursell PC, Davis RL.

Churchill Livingstone Philadelphia, Pa. USA, 2004 616.0759 FINK

Safety References

· Chemical hazards of the workplace

Nick H. Proctor, James P. Hughes.

Hoboken, N.J., J. Wiley, c2004. 615.902 PROC (ED.5)

· Laboratory-acquired Infections, 4th ed 1999

Collins CH & Kennedy DA, Butterworth Heinemann Publ

· Laboratory Safety Manual, 1993- updated loose leaf subscription service

Smith R ed CCH Publishers

· Hazard Alert, 1993 - updated loose leaf subscription service

Smith R ed CCH Publishers

· Chemical Safety at Work - The easy guide, 1997

Parker E & Chaumont C, authors and publishers 363.179 PARK

· Tuberculosis Pathogenesis, protection and control, 1994

Bloom BR ed ASM Press, Washington DC

· CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety 5th ed. 2000

Furr AK ed, CRC Press

· The ABC of Safe Practices for the Biological Science Laboratory - An easy to use reference manual for laboratory personnel, 1991

Ellis RC & Perry DI, Education Resource Centre, Adelaide Medical Centre for Women & Children

· Fundamentals of Laboratory Safety - Physical hazards in the academic laboratory, 1991, Mahn WJ, Van Norstrand Reinhold Publ, New York

· Approved Criteria for Classifying Hazardous Substances [NOHSC:1008(1994)],

Natl Occupational Health & Safety Commission, Aust Gov Publ Service, Canberra

· National Code of Practice for the preparation of MSD Sheets [NOHSC:2011(1994)],

Natl Occupational Health & Safety Commission, Aust Gov Publ Service, Canberra

· The Foundations of Laboratory Safety - A guide for the Biomedical Laboratory, 1990

Rayburn SR, Springer Verlag Publ

· Riley RL (1957) Aerial dissemination of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Am. Rev Tuberc. 76:931-941

· The Hazards of Hospital Work, 1988

Sinclair W, Allen and Unwin, Sydney,

· Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 3rd edition, 2004

World Health Organization Geneva

· 21st Century Complete Guide to Biosafety and Biosecurity [CD-ROM]

U.S. Government

· Biological Safety: Principles And Practices (Biological Safety: Principles & Practices) 4th ed 2006 DO Fleming & D Long Hunt (Editors) ASM Press

Histology References

·Histology and Cell Biology: An Introduction to Pathology 3rd ed. 2012 Kierszenbaum AL & Tres LL, Mosby Publ

· Histology A Text and Atlas 3rd or 4th eds, Ross, Kaye & Pawlina, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publ

· Atlas of Functional Histology 1998 Kerr JB, Mosby Publ (most images come from here)

· Histology, 1992, 2nd ed., 1996 Stevens A & Lowe JS, Gower Publ, Mosby

· Colour Textbook of Histology 2nd ed 1997 Gartner LP & Hiatt JL, Saunders Publ

· Text/Atlas of Histology 1988 Leeson TS, Leeson RC & Paparo AA, Saunders Publ

· An Atlas of Histology 1998 Zhang S-X, Springer.

· Atlas of Human Histology. 6th ed., 1989 and all subsequent editions Di Fiore MSH, Lea and Febiger Publ,

· Wheater's Functional Histology, A Colour Atlas & Text 4th ed 2000 Young B & Heath JW, Churchill Livingstone

· Functional Histology. A Colour Atlas and Text, 1979 Wheater PR, Burkitt HG and Daniels V, Churchill Livingston Press

· Histology 1996 Bergman RA, Afifi AK & Heidger PM Jr, Saunders Publ

Websites:

· “Visual Histology,” by Moran & Rowley, illustrated on-line Text-Atlas, http://www.visualhistology.com/Visual_Histology_Atlas/atlas.html

· Medlink, Portal to Internal Medicine Resources

http://plaza.powersurfr.com/medlink

· Links - various links

http://www.biostains.org/new_page_8.htm

· MedWebPlus.Com - Health Science Information Index

http://www.medwebplus.com

· Health Stats Online

http://online.anu.edu.au/nceph/health-stats-online/welcome.html

· Med Links

http://plaza.powersurfr.com/medlink/

· Uni Western Australia Dept of Human Biology - "histology practical assistant"

http://www.anhb.uwa.edu.au/hpa/hpademo.html

· Australian National University, National Center for Epidemiology & Population Health,

http://online.anu.edu.au/nceph/health-stats-online/welcome.html